Right to Food & Water


The concepts of the “Right to Food” and the “Right to Water” are fundamental human rights recognized in various international treaties, including the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR). The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) addresses the right of children to adequate nutrition and healthcare.

  • Right to Food

The right to food entails that every individual has the right to access adequate and nutritious food to maintain an adequate standard of living. It emphasizes the availability, accessibility, and adequacy of food. Availability refers to the sufficient supply of food; accessibility refers to physical and economic access to food; adequacy refers to the nutritional quality of the food. The right to food includes elements of non-discrimination, meaning that access to food should not be denied based on factors like race, gender, or economic status.

States are obligated to take steps to ensure food security by implementing policies, programs, and measures to address issues such as hunger, malnutrition, food distribution, and agricultural development.

  • Right to Water

The right to water ensures that everyone has access to sufficient, safe, and affordable water for personal and domestic use. It encompasses access to clean drinking water, sanitation facilities, and hygiene. Similar to the right to food, the right to water includes the principles of availability, accessibility, and quality. Water should be physically accessible, economically affordable, and of adequate quality to meet personal and domestic needs.

States are responsible for ensuring access to clean water and sanitation facilities, preventing waterborne diseases, and safeguarding water sources.

Constitution of Pakistan

The Constitution of Pakistan guarantees the right to life, liberty, and security of person under Article 9. This right includes access to sufficient food and water for sustenance. Additionally, Article 38(a) of the Constitution mandates the state to provide social, economic, and political justice, which includes ensuring the availability of food and water to all citizens.

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